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Oral Manifestations, continued

Diabetes Mellitus
Patients with diabetes have increased risk for dental caries, oral candidal infections, and
Xerostomia: Abnormal dryness of the mouth due to insufficient saliva production.
Diabetic sialadenosis presents as diffuse, nontender, bilateral parotid enlargement.

Oral candidiasis may be the presenting infection in HIV.
Oral hairy
Leukoplakia: A condition commonly considered precancerous in which thickened white patches of epithelium occur on the mucous membranes especially of the mouth.
leukoplakia occurs in 20% of asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals and is triggered by EBV infection.
Kaposi’s sarcoma presents most commonly on the palate, followed by the gingiva or tongue.

Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

Autosomal dominant condition characterized by multiple hamartomatous polyps of the GI tract with hyperpigmented maculae of the skin and oral mucosa.
Multiple, small hyperpigmented maculae develop on the lips and buccal mucosa, beginning in infancy.

Wegener’s Granulomatosis
Vasculitis involving the respiratory tract and kidneys.
Can cause swollen, red, granular gingival lesions, termed "strawberry gingivitis".
Ulceration of the gingival lesions is pathognomonic for Wegener’s disease.
Many systemic conditions are known to adversely affect the mouth or teeth, and these patients require additional oral care and management.
Oral findings may be the only presenting symptom for leukemia and hystiocytosis.
Early tooth loss, especially mandibular molars, should prompt consideration of Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Xerostomia may occur in SLE, Sjogren's Disease, and Diabetes Mellitus.
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