Risk Factors for Periodontal Disease
Periodontal Link to Systemic Disease
- Periodontitis may be an independent risk factor for:
- Cardiovascular disease (stroke and coronary heart disease)
- Diabetes (glycemic control, diabetes complications, and development of type 2 diabetes)
- Adverse pregnancy outcomes (i.e., low-birth weight, premature birth)
- Association with multiple other systemic diseases (cancer, arthritis,
obesity, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease) has been
studied, but study size, limitations, and confounders prohibit
statement of causal connection at this time.
- Additional studies are warranted to investigate these associations.
Periodontal Disease Prevention and Treatment
- Reinforce the importance of good oral hygiene, encourage brushing
and flossing. Â
- Discourage all forms of tobacco and other drug use. Â
- Discuss the risks of oral piercings.
- Promote regular preventive dental visits.Â
- Maintain vigilance regarding the oral health of adolescents with
special health care needs. Â
- Incorporate an evaluation of hard and soft oral tissues into every
routine physical examination. Â
- Refer patients with abnormalities to a dental professional and
continue close monitoring.