Parotitis is the clinical term for inflammation and swelling of the parotid gland. With parotitis, the parotid gland is tender to palpation and the opening to Stensonâ€™s duct appears inflamed and swollen.
Viral Causes of Parotitis
Mumps is the classic virus known to cause parotitis. Mumps parotitis is bilateral in 70% of cases and usually follows a 1-2 day prodrome of fever, headache, emesis, and myalgias.
Bacterial Causes of Parotitis
Called â€œpurulent parotitisâ€�, bacterial infection of the parotid gland is typically unilateral and extremely painful with visible pus draining from Stensonâ€™s duct. The patient often appears ill and should be empirically treated with antibiotics after culture obtained.
Obstruction Parotitis from obstruction is typically the result of a salivary stone or sialolith, which is expected to be unilateral. If the patient is not ill, expectant management for passage of the sialolith is appropriate.
Other Conditions Other conditions that can result in parotid gland
enlargement (with or without inflammation) include: