Many medications have known adverse effects on the oral cavity. Common oral medication side effects include:
Gingival hyperplasia in children can be:
Hereditary â€“ Rare, onset in early childhood
Inflammatory â€“ Chronic gingivitis can trigger gingival overgrowth
Infiltrative â€“ Leukemia, often the monocytic type, can infiltrate the gingival tissues
Drug-induced. Medications that can cause hyperplasia:
Calcium channel blockers (nifedipine)
In addition to the cosmetic concern, gingival hyperplasia puts children at risk for:
Poor oral hygiene
Impaired tooth eruption,
Treatment includes meticulous hygiene, discontinuing the offending agent, and gingivectomy if severe.
Increased risk in patients with diabetes, immunosuppression, and xerostomia. Characterized by adherent white plaques on mucosa and palate. Common complication of inhaled steroid use, usually for treatment of asthma. Counsel use of a spacer and always rinse the mouth after inhaled steroid use. Treat with topical antifungals (e.g. Nystatin) and sterilize bottles and nipples to prevent reinfection.
Xerostomia: Abnormal dryness of the mouth due to insufficient saliva production.
Medications that can cause dental staining:
Tetracycline class of antibiotics
Cause a yellow, brown, or greyish discoloration of permanent teeth and should not be administered to pregnant women or children younger than 8.
Liquid drops can cause a reversible grey-black stain on teeth, which can generally be prevented or minimized by good oral hygiene. Staining is easily removed by a dental professional.