References

Chapter 1 - Chapter 2 - Chapter 3 - Chapter 4 - Chapter 5 - Chapter 6 - Chapter 7
Chapter 8 - Chapter 9 - Chapter 10 - Chapter 11 - Chapter 12 - Chapter 13


Chapter 1: Basic Oral Anatomy
1. Anatomy of orofacial structures. 7th edition. RW Brand and DE Isselhard eds. St Louis. Mosby. 2003.
2. Netter's head and neck anatomy for dentistry. NS Norton. Philadelphia. Saunders Elsevier. 2007.
3. Wheeler's dental anatomy, physiology and occlusion, 8th Edition. MM Ash and SJ Nelson eds. Philadelphia. Saunders. 2003.


Chapter 2: Dental Development
1. Anderson JE. "Nothing but the tooth”: Dispelling myths about teething. Contemp Pediatr. 2004; 21:75.
2.
Cunha RF, Boer FA et al. Natal and neonatal teeth: review of the literature. Pediatr Dent,
2001; 23(2):158-162.


Chapter 3: Oral Health Screening
1. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Council on Clinical Affairs. Policy on the Dental Home. Reaffirmed 2010: 33(6) 24-25. Available online at: http://www.aapd.org/media/Policies_Guidelines/ P_DentalHome.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2012.
2.
Casamassimo P, Holt K, eds. 2004. Bright Futures in Practice: Oral Health-Pocket Guide. Washington, DC: National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center.
3.American Academy of Pediatrics and Bright Futures. Oral Health Risk Assessment Tool. Available online at: http://www2.aap.org/oralhealth/RiskAssessmentTool.html and http://brightfutures.aap.org/Oral_Health_Risk_Assessment_Resources.html.
4. American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement. Oral Health Risk Assessment Timing and Establishment of the Dental Home.
Pediatrics. 2003; 111(5): 1113-1116. Available online at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/111/5/1113.full. Accessed December 1, 2006.
5. Hale KJ. Early risk assessment can lead to better oral health.
AAP News. 2003; 22(5): 202.
6. Hale KJ. Ensuring healthy smiles: Pediatric practices should assess caries risk in young patients.
AAP News. 2003; 22(6): 253.
7. Hale KJ. Something to sink your teeth into: Pediatricians advised on how to assess patients for caries, educate families on oral health issues.
AAP News. 2003; 23(1): 21.

Chapter 4: Caries
1. American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement. Oral health Risk Assessment Timing and Establishment of the Dental Home. Pediatrics. 2003; 111(5): 1113-1116. Available online at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/111/5/1113.full. Accessed November 20, 2006.
2. Anderson M. Risk assessment and epidemiology of dental caries: review of the literature.
Pediatr Dent.
2002; 24(5): 377-385.
3. Berkowitz RJ. Causes, Treatment and Prevention of Early Childhood Caries: A Microbiologic Perspective.
J Can Dent Assoc. 2003; 69(5): 304-7.
4. Berkowitz RJ. Mutans Streptococci: Acquisition and Treatment.
Pediatr Dent. 2006; 28(2): 106-9.
5. Gift HC, Reisine ST, Larach DC. The Social Impact of Dental Problems and Visits.
Am Journal of Public Health. 1992; 82(12): 1663-8.
6. Holt K and Barzel R. Open Wide: Oral Health Training for Health Professionals. Available online at: http://www.mchoralhealth.org/openwide. Accessed November 20, 2006.
7. Isokangas P et al. Occurrence of dental decay in children after maternal consumption of xylitol chewing gum, a follow-up from 0-5 years of age.
J Dental Res. 2000; 79(11):1885-9.
8. Kaste LM et al. Coronal caries in the primary and permanent dentition of children and adolescents 1-17 years of age: United States, 1988-1991.
J Dental Res. 1996; 75: 631-41.
9. Keyes PH. Research in Dental Caries.
JADA. 1968; 76: 1357-1373.
10. Lai PY et al. Enamel hypoplasia and dental caries in VLBW children: a case-controlled, longitudinal study.
Pediatr Dent. 1997; 19(1): 42-9.
11. Lee JY et al. Examining the cost-effectiveness of early dental visits.
Pediatr Dent. 2006; 28(2):102-5.
12. Li Y, Caufield PW. The fidelity of initial acquisition of mutans streptococi by infants from their mothers.
J Dent Res. 1995, 74(2): 681-5.
13. Linnett V et al. Oral health of children with gastroesophageal reflux disease: a controlled study.
Aust Dent J. 2002; 47(2): 156-62.
14. Oral health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health; 2000. Available online at: http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/DataStatistics/SurgeonGeneral. Accessed November 20, 2006.
15. Pettinato ES, Webb MD, Seale NS. A comparison of Medicaid reimbursement for non-definitive pediatric dental treatment in the emergency room versus periodic preventative care.
Pediatr Dent. 2000; 22(6): 463-8.
16. Savage MF et al. Early preventative dental visits: effects on subsequent utilization and costs.
Pediatrics. 2004; 114(4): 418-23.
17. Seow WK. Enamel hypoplasia in the primary dentition: a review. ASDC
J Dent Child. 1991; 58(6): 441-52.
18. Soderling E at al. Influence of maternal xylitol consumption on mother-child transmission of mutans streptococci: 6-year follow-up.
Caries Res. 2001; 35(3):173-7.
19. Vargas CM et al. Sociodemographic Distribution of Pediatric Dental Caries: NHAANES III, 1988-1994.
JADA. 1998; 129: 1229-1238.

Chapter 5: Preventive Care

1.American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Guideline on Infant Oral Health Care. Council on Clinical Affairs. Reference Manual 2011. 33(6):124-128.
2. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Policy on Early Childhood Caries (ECC): Classifications, Consequences, and Preventive Strategies. Pediatr Dent 2011, 33(6): 47-49.
4 .
Ahovuo-Saloranta A, Hiiri A, Nordblad A, Worthington H, Mäkelä M. Pit and fissure sealants for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth of children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD001830. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001830.pub2
5. American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement. Oral health Risk Assessment Timing and Establishment of the Dental Home.
Pediatrics. 2003; 111(5): 1113-1116. Available online at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/111/5/1113.full.
6. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. The Use and Misuse of Fruit Juice in Pediatrics.
Pediatrics. May 2001; 107 (5): 1210-1213.
7. Brambilla E et al. Caries prevention during pregnancy: results of a 30-month study.
J Am Dent Assoc. 1998; 129(7): 871-7.
8. Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5. American Academy of Pediatrics publication. Bantam Books, 3rd edition; Shelov SP and Hannemann RE (eds); 1998.
9. Dental Sealants.
JADA. 1997; 128 (4): 485-488.
10. Isokangas P et al. Occurrence of dental decay in children after maternal consumption of xylitol chewing gum, a follow-up from 0-5 years of age.
J Dental Res. 2000; 79(11):1885-9.
11. Kaste LM et al. Coronal caries in the primary and permanent dentition of children and adolescents 1-17 years of age: US
J Dent Res. 1996; 75: 631-641.
12. Kohler B, Andreen I. Influence of caries-preventative measures in mothers on cariogenic bacteria and caries experience in their children.
Arch Oral Biol. 1994; 39(10): 907-11.
13. Pang D, Vann WF. The use of fluoride-containing toothpastes in young children: the scientific evidence for recommending a small quantity.
Pediatr Dent. 1992; 14(6): 384-387.
14. Siegal MD et al. Dental Sealants: Who needs them? Public Health Reports. 1997; 112(2): 98-106.
15. Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis – United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2002.
MMWR. August 25, 2005. Vol 54 (SS3;1).
16. Truman BI, Gooch BF et al and The Task Force on Community Preventive Services Reviews of evidence on interventions to prevent dental caries, oral and pharyngeal cancers, and sports-related craniofacial injuries.
Am J Prev Med. 2002; 23(1):21-54.

Chapter 6: Fluoride
1. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Guideline on Infant Oral Health Care. Council on Clinical Affairs. Reference Manual 2011. 33(6): 124-128.
2. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Policy on Early Childhood Caries (ECC): Classifications, Consequences, and Preventive Strategies. Pediatr Dent 2011, 33(6): 47-49.
3. American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. Professionally applied topical fluoride. Evidence-based clinical recommendations. JADA. August 1, 2006. 137(8): 1151-1159.
4. Berg J, Gerweck C, Hujoel PP, et al. Evidence-Based Clinical Recommendations Regarding Fluoride Intake from Reconstituted Infant Formula and Enamel Fluorosis. A Report of the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. JAMA. January 2011 vol. 142(1): 79-87.
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Tooth Decay in the United States Fact Sheet, updated Jan 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/factsheets/fl_caries.htm.
6.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. MMWR. 2001; 50(RR-14): 1-42. Available online at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5014a1.htm. Accessed November 20, 2006.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for Dental caries, Dental sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis-United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2002. MMWR Surveillance Summaries. 2005. 54(03);1-44. Available online at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5403a1.htm. Accessed November 20, 2006.
8. Department of Health and Human Services. HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries. Federal Register. Vol. 76(9): January 13, 2011.
9. Krol DM. Dental caries, oral health, and pediatricians. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2003; 33(8):253-270.
10. Lewis CW, Milgrom P. Fluoride.
Pediatr Rev. 2003; 24(10):327-336.
11. Lewis DW, Ismail AI. Periodic health examination: 1995 update: 2. Prevention of dental caries. The Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.
Can Med Assoc J. 1995; 152(6): 836-46.
12. Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Logan S, Sheiham A. Fluoride varnishes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD002279. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002279. This version first published online: 21 January 2002 in Issue 1, 2002.
13. Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Logan S, Sheiham A. Topical fluoride (toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, or varnishes) for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD002782. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002782. This version first published online: 20 January 2003 in Issue 1, 2003.
14. Rozier RG, Adair S, Graham F, et al. Evidence-Based Clinical Recommendations on the Prescription of Dietary Fluoride Supplements for Caries Prevention. A Report of the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. JADA. December 2010 vol. 141(12): 1480-1489.
15. US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health.
Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville MD: 2000. Available online at: http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/DataStatistics/SurgeonGeneral. Accessed November 20, 2006.
16. US Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Part 141.62. Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic contaminants. Code of Federal Regulations 2002:428-9.
17. US Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Part 143.3 National secondary drinking water regulations. Code of Federal Regulations 2002; 614.
18. US Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, 2010-2011. Available online at: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/pocketgd.htm. Accessed January 28, 2011.


Chapter 7: Special Needs
1. American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement. Oral health Risk Assessment Timing and Establishment of the Dental Home. Pediatrics. 2003; 111(5): 1113-1116. Available online at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/111/5/1113.full. Accessed June 20, 2007.
2. Barzel R, Holt K, Isman B et al. Special Care: An Oral Health Professional’s Guide to Serving Young Children with Special Health Care Needs. Available online at: http://www.mchoralhealth.org/SpecialCare. Accessed May 30, 2007.
3. Casamassimo P, Seale S, Ruehs K. General dentists’ perceptions of educational and treatment issues affecting access to care for children with special health care needs.
J Dent Educ. 2004; 68(1):23–28.
4. Guideline on Management of Persons with Special Health Care Needs. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Clinical Guidelines, Council on Clinical Affairs; 2008,
Pediatr Dent; 33(6):142-146. Available online at: http://www.aapd.org/media/Policies_Guidelines/G_SHCN.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2012.
5. McPherson M, Arango P, Fox H et al. Commentary: A New Definition of Children With Special Health Care Needs.
Pediatrics. 1998; 102(1): 137 –139.
6. Newacheck PW, McManus M, Fox HB et al. Access to Health Care for Children With Special Health Care Needs.
Pediatrics. 2000; 105(4):760-766.
7. Newacheck PW, Strickland B, Shonkoff JP, et al. An Epidemiologic Profile of Children With Special Health Care Needs.
Pediatrics. 1998; 102(1):117-121.
8. Perlman SP, Friedman C, Kaufhold GH. Special Smiles: A Guide to Good Oral Health for Persons with Special Needs. Available online at: http://media.specialolympics.org/soi/files/healthy-athletes/Special%20_Smiles_Good_Oral_Health_Guide.pdf.
Accessed June 20, 2007.
9. van Dyck PC, Kogan MD, McPherson MG et al. Prevalence and Characteristics of Children with Special Health Care Needs.
Arch Pediatric Adolesc Med. 2004; 158(9): 884-890.

Chapter 8: Oral Habits
1. Adair SM. Pacifier Use in Children: A Review of Recent Literature. Pediatr Dent. 2003; 25(5): 449-458. Available online at: http://www.aapd.org/upload/articles/adair-25-05.pdf. Accessed January 15, 2007.
2. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, Council on Clinical Affairs. Policy on oral habits. Reference Manual 2006-2007: 51-52. Available online at: http://www.aapd.org/media/Policies_Guidelines/P_OralHabits.pdf. Accessed July 25, 2012.
3. American Academy of Pediatrics. The Changing Concept of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Diagnostic Coding Shifts, Controversies Regarding the Sleeping Environment, and New Variables to Consider in Reducing Risk. Policy Statement: Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.
Pediatrics. 2005; 116(5): 1245-1255. Available online at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/116/5/1245. Accessed January 15, 2007.
4. Fleming PJ et al. Pacifier use and sudden infant death syndrome: results from the CESDI/SUDI case control study.
Arch Dis Child. 1999; 81: 112-116.
5. Holt K and Barzel R. A Health Professional’s Guide to Pediatric Oral Health Management; 2006. http://www.mchoralhealth.org/PediatricOH/index.htm. Accessed January 15, 2007.
6. North K, Fleming P, Golding J. Pacifier Use and Morbidity in the First Six Months of Life.
Pediatrics. 1999; 103(3): e34. Available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/103/3/e34.full.pdf. Accessed January 15, 2007.
7. Nowak AJ, Warren JJ. Infant Oral health and Oral habits.
Pediatr Clinics of N Am. 2000; 47(5): 1043-66.
8. Warren JJ et al. Effects of oral habits’ duration on dental characteristics in the primary dentition.
JADA. 2001; 132(12): 1685-93.
9. Warren JJ et al. Nonnutritive sucking behaviors in preschool children: A longitudinal study.
Pediatr Dent. 2000; 22(3): 187-91.
10. Zardetto CG, Rodrigues C, Stefani FM. Effects of different pacifiers on the primary dentition and oral myofunctional structures of preschool children.
Pediatr Dent. 2002; 24(6): 552-560.

Chapter 9: Common Oral Pathology
1. Avcu N, Gorduysus M, Omer Gorduysus M. Referred dental pain. The Pain Clinic. 2003; 15(2): 173-178.
2. Ferretti GA, Cecil JC. Kids Smile: Oral Health Training Program Lecture Series. Sponsored by the Kentucky Department for Public Health and the University of Kentucky College of Dentistry.
3. Handbook of Pediatric Dentistry. 2nd ed. Cameron AC, Widmer RP (Eds). Mosby; 2003.
4. Krol DM, Keels, MA. Oral Conditions.
Pediatr Rev. 2007; 28(1): 15-22.
5. Okeson JP, Falace DA. Nonodontogenic toothache. Dental Clinics of North America. 1997; 41(2): 367-83.
6. Oral Pathology: Clinical Pathologic Correlations. 4th ed. Regezi JA, Sciubba JJ, Jordan RCK (Eds) WB Saunders, St Louis Mo. 2003.
7. Pediatric Dentistry: Infancy through Adolescence. 4th ed. Pinkham JR, Casamassimo PS, Fields HW, McTigue DJ, Nowak AJ (Eds). WB Saunders, St Louis, Mo. 2005.


Chapter 10: Oral Injury
1. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Decision Tree for an Avulsed Tooth. Available online at: http://www.aapd.org/media/policies_guidelines/rs_traumaflowsheet.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2012.
2. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Council on Clinical Affairs. Guideline on Management of Acute Dental trauma. Reference Manual; revised 2011: 33(6), 220-228. Available online at: http://www.aapd.org/media/Policies_Guidelines/G_Trauma.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2012.
3. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Council on Clinical Affairs. Policy on Prevention of Sports-related Orofacial Injuries. revised 2010, 63-66. Available online at: http://www.aapd.org/media/policies_guidelines/p_sports.pdf. Accessed January 15, 2007.
4. American Academy of Pediatrics: Injuries Associated With Infant Walkers. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention.
Pediatrics. 2001; 108(3): 790-792. Available online at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/108/3/790. Accessed January 15, 2007.
5. American Academy of Pediatrics: Trampolines at Home, School, and Recreational Centers. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention and Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness.
Pediatrics. 1999; 103(5): 1053-1056. Available online at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/103/5/1053. Accessed January 15, 2007.
6. Cohen S, Burns RC. Pathways of the Pulp. Eighth edition.
7. Conference on Sports Injuries in Youth. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 1992. NIH Publication No 93-3444.
8 7. Hergenroeder AC. Prevention of Sports Injuries.
Pediatrics. 1998; 101(6): 1057-1063.
9. Hsu SS, Groleau G. Tetanus in the Emergency Department: A Current Review.
Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2001; 20(4):357-65.
10. Newsome PR, Tran DC, Cooke MS. The role of the mouthguard in the prevention of sports-related dental injuries: a review.
Int J Paediatr Dent. 2001; 11(6):396-404.
11. Protecting Teeth with Mouth guards. Patient Information Pamphlet.
JADA. 2006; Vol. 137: 1772. Available online at: http://www.ada.org/sections/scienceAndResearch/pdfs/patient_69.pdf. Accessed January 15, 2007.
12. The Society of Teachers of Family Medicine. Smiles for life: A national oral health curriculum for family medicine. 2006. www.smilesforlifeoralhealth.org. Accessed June 4, 2012.
13. US Department of Health and Human Services. Oral health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health; 2000. Available online at: http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/ DataStatistics/SurgeonGeneral.


Chapter 11: Oral Findings
1. Brown GC et al. Partners in Prevention- Infant Oral Health Manual for Health Professionals. New York University College of Dentistry; Department of Pediatric Dentistry. 2nd Edition, 2000.
2. Ferretti GA, Cecil JC. Kids Smile: Oral Health Training Program Lecture Series. Sponsored by the Kentucky Department for Public Health and the University of Kentucky College of Dentistry.
3. Krol DM, Keels, MA. Oral Conditions.
Pediatr Rev. 2007; 28(1): 15-22.
4. Messadi DV, Waibel JS, Mirowski GW. White lesions of the oral cavity. Dermatologic Clinics. 2003; 21: 63-78.
5. Witman PM, Rogers RS. Pediatric Oral Medicine.
Dermatol Clin. 2003; 21:157-170.
6. US Department of Health and Human Services. Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health; 2000.


Chapter 12: Systemic Disease
1. Broadbent JM, Ayers KMS, Thomson WM. Is Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder a Risk Factor for Dental Caries? A Case-Control Study. Caries Res. 2004; 38(1): 29-33.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States.
MMWR 2001; 50(RR-14): 1-42. Available online at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5014a1.htm. Accessed June 20, 2006.
3. Grooms MT et al. Caries experience associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
J Clin Pediatric Dent. 2005; 30(1): 3-7.
4. Long RG, Hlousek L, Doyle JL. Oral Manifestations of Systemic Disease.
Dermatol Clin. 1998; 65:309-315.
5. Meraw SJ, Sheridan PJ. Medically Induced Gingival Hyperplasia.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 1998; 73: 1196-1199.
6. Milosevic A, Brodie DA, Slade PD. Dental erosion, oral hygiene, and nutrition in eating disorders.
Int J Eat Disorders. 1997; 21(2): 195-199.
7. Parks ET, Lancaster H. Oral manifestations of systemic disease.
Dermatol Clin. 2003; 21(1):171-182.
8. Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Disease. American Academy of Pediatrics. 2009; Pickering LK (editor): 826-827.
9. Roberts MW, Tylenda CA. Dental aspects of anorexia and bulimic nervosa. Pediatrician. 1989; 16(3): 178-184.
10. Trost LB, McDonnell JK. Important cutaneous manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease: review.
Postgrad Med J. 2005; 81:580-585.
11. Wilson W, Taubert KA, Gewitz M et al. Prevention of INfective Endocardititis. Guidelines from the American Heart Association: A Guideline from the American Association of Rheumatic Fever, Endocardititis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. Circulation. 2007; 116:1736-1754.


Chapter 13: Adolescent Oral Health

1. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Guideline on Adolescent Oral Health Care. AAPD Reference Manual. 2005-2006. P. 72-79.
2. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Council on Clinical Affairs. Policy on Intraoral and Perioral Piercing. 2011. 33(6): 61-62. Available online at: http://www.aapd.org/media/policies_guidelines/p_pierce.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2012.
3. American Dental Association. Grills, “grillz”, and fronts.
JADA. 2006;137:1192.
4. American Dental Association. Oral piercing and health.
JADA. 2001;132:127.
5. CDC. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, United States – 2009, Surveillance Summaries, June 4. MMWR 2010;59(No. SS-5).

6. Brown LJ, Brunelle JA, Kingman A. Periodontal status in the United States, 1988-1991: prevalence, extent and demographic variations [special issue]. J Dent Res. 1996; 75:672-83.
7. Casamassimo P. Bright futures in practice: Oral health. Arlington, VA. National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health. 1996.
8. Hollowell WH, Childers NK. A New Threat to Adolescent Oral Health: The Grill. Pediatr Dent.
2007; 29(4): 320-2.8. Howe AM. Methamphetamine and childhood and adolescent caries.
Aust Dent J. 1995; 40(5):340.
9. Oh TJ, Eber R, Wang HL. Periodontal diseases in the child and adolescent.
J Clin Periodontol. 2002; 29(5):400-10.
10. Kapferer I, Beier US, Persson RG. Tongue Piercing: The Effect of Material on Microbiological Findings. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2011; 49 (1): 76 - 83.
11. The Society of Teachers of Family Medicine. Smiles for life: A national oral health curriculum. Available online at: www.smilesforlifeoralhealth.org. Accessed May 25, 2012.
12. US Department of Health and Human Services. Oral health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health; 2000. Available online at http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/ DataStatistics/SurgeonGeneral. Accessed January 18, 2007.