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Oral Manifestations, continued
Autoimmune Disorders

Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE)
 
Oral lesions are seen in 9% to 45% of patients, with the prevalence depending on the form of lupus.
 
Oral ulcers are the most common manifestation and often present as painless, palatal lesions.
 
Parotid involvement of SLE can result in
Xerostomia: Abnormal dryness of the mouth due to insufficient saliva production.
xerostomia.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis)
 
Oral findings occur in 8% to 10% of patients with Crohn’s Disease and may precede the gastrointestinal involvement.
 
Aphthous ulcer: Disintegration and necrosis of epithelial tissue on a mucous membrane; usually painful.
Aphthous ulcers and angular
Cheilitis: Inflammation of the lip.
cheilitis are found in both Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.
 
Cobblestoning or mucosal nodularity of the buccal mucosa and gingiva is unique to Crohn's Disease.
 
Pyostomatitis vegetans, a condition of punctuate pustules on the labial and buccal mucosa, is primarily seen in Ulcerative Colitis.

Sjogren’s Disease

 
Characterized by parotid gland enlargement and xerostomia.
 
Decrease in saliva production results in difficulty swallowing and eating, taste and speech alterations, and increased risk of dental caries.
 
 
Many systemic conditions are known to adversely affect the mouth or teeth, and these patients require additional oral care and management.
 
Oral findings may be the only presenting symptom for leukemia and hystiocytosis.
 
Early tooth loss, especially mandibular molars, should prompt consideration of Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
 
Xerostomia may occur in SLE, Sjogren's Disease, and Diabetes Mellitus.
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