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Protecting All Children's Teeth (PACT): A Pediatric Oral Health Training Program
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Sources of Systemic Fluoride Exposure

Fluoride can be ingested through:

  • Drinking water (naturally occurring or water system additive)
  • Other beverages
  • Foods
  • Toothpaste
  • Fluoride dietary supplements

Bottled Water
No one source exists to tell consumers the fluoride content in bottled waters.

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not require that fluoride content be listed on the labels of bottled waters.

It is reasonable to assume that children whose only source of water is bottled are not receiving optimal amounts of fluoride from that source.e.

Commercial Beverages and Foods
Many foods and beverages are made with community fluoridated water, so may contain fluoride.

Foods such as seafood and certain teas can also have a naturally high fluoride content.

This must all be taken into account when determining daily fluoride intake. .

Infant Nutrition
Human breast milk contains almost no fluoride, even when the nursing mother drinks fluoridated water.

Powdered infant formula contains little or no fluoride, unless mixed with fluoridated water. The amount of fluoride ingested will depend on the volume of fluoridated water mixed with the formula.

Fast Facts
The amount of fluoride in bottled water varies but is generally suboptimal.
Fluoride does not pass through human milk.
Infant formula only contains fluoride if mixed with fluoridated water.

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